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‘Extremely rare’ fossil tooth of hamster-sized monkey found in Peru

first_imgArticle published by Shreya Dasgupta Popular in the CommunitySponsoredSponsoredOrangutan found tortured and decapitated prompts Indonesia probeEMGIES17 Jan, 2018We will never know the full extent of what this poor Orangutan went through before he died, the same must be done to this evil perpetrator(s) they don’t deserve the air that they breathe this has truly upset me and I wonder for the future for these wonderful creatures. So called ‘Mankind’ has a lot to answer for we are the only ones ruining this world I prefer animals to humans any day of the week.What makes community ecotourism succeed? In Madagascar, location, location, locationScissors1dOther countries should also learn and try to incorporateWhy you should care about the current wave of mass extinctions (commentary)Processor1 DecAfter all, there is no infinite anything in the whole galaxy!Infinite stupidity, right here on earth.The wildlife trade threatens people and animals alike (commentary)Anchor3dUnfortunately I feel The Chinese have no compassion for any living animal. They are a cruel country that as we knowneatbeverything that moves and do not humanily kill these poor animals and insects. They have no health and safety on their markets and they then contract these diseases. Maybe its karma maybe they should look at the way they live and stop using animals for all there so called remedies. DisgustingConservationists welcome China’s wildlife trade banThobolo27 JanChina has consistently been the worlds worst, “ Face of Evil “ in regards our planets flora and fauna survival. In some ways, this is nature trying to fight back. This ban is great, but the rest of the world just cannot allow it to be temporary, because history has demonstrated that once this coronavirus passes, they will in all likelihood, simply revert to been the planets worst Ecco Terrorists. Let’s simply not allow this to happen! How and why they have been able to degrade this planets iconic species, rape the planets rivers, oceans and forests, with apparent impunity, is just mind boggling! Please no more.Probing rural poachers in Africa: Why do they poach?Carrot3dOne day I feel like animals will be more scarce, and I agree with one of my friends, they said that poaching will take over the world, but I also hope notUpset about Amazon fires last year? Focus on deforestation this year (commentary)Bullhorn4dLies and more leisSponsoredSponsoredCoke is again the biggest culprit behind plastic waste in the PhilippinesGrapes7 NovOnce again the article blames companies for the actions of individuals. It is individuals that buy these products, it is individuals that dispose of them improperly. If we want to change it, we have to change, not just create bad guys to blame.Brazilian response to Bolsonaro policies and Amazon fires growsCar4 SepThank you for this excellent report. I feel overwhelmed by the ecocidal intent of the Bolsonaro government in the name of ‘developing’ their ‘God-given’ resources.U.S. allocates first of $30M in grants for forest conservation in SumatraPlanet4dcarrot hella thick ;)Melting Arctic sea ice may be altering winds, weather at equator: studyleftylarry30 JanThe Arctic sea ice seems to be recovering this winter as per the last 10-12 years, good news.Malaysia has the world’s highest deforestation rate, reveals Google forest mapBone27 Sep, 2018Who you’re trying to fool with selective data revelation?You can’t hide the truth if you show historical deforestation for all countries, especially in Europe from 1800s to this day. WorldBank has a good wholesome data on this.Mass tree planting along India’s Cauvery River has scientists worriedSurendra Nekkanti23 JanHi Mongabay. Good effort trying to be objective in this article. I would like to give a constructive feedback which could help in clearing things up.1. It is mentioned that planting trees in village common lands will have negative affects socially and ecologically. There is no need to even have to agree or disagree with it, because, you also mentioned the fact that Cauvery Calling aims to plant trees only in the private lands of the farmers. So, plantation in the common lands doesn’t come into the picture.2.I don’t see that the ecologists are totally against this project, but just they they have some concerns, mainly in terms of what species of trees will be planted. And because there was no direct communication between the ecologists and Isha Foundation, it was not possible for them to address the concerns. As you seem to have spoken with an Isha spokesperson, if you could connect the concerned parties, it would be great, because I see that the ecologists are genuinely interested in making sure things are done the right way.May we all come together and make things happen.Rare Amazon bush dogs caught on camera in BoliviaCarrot1 Feba very good iniciative to be fallowed by the ranchers all overSponsored Animals, Environment, Forests, Fossils, Happy-upbeat Environmental, Monkeys, New Species, Paleontology, Primates, Rainforests, Research, Species Discovery center_img From the riverbed of the Río Alto Madre de Dios in southeastern Peru, researchers have found an extremely small tooth that belonged to a species of tiny monkey that lived some 18 million years ago.Researchers have named the new species of extinct monkey Parvimico materdei, with parvimico meaning tiny monkey and the species name referring to the river where the fossil tooth was found.From the tooth, the researchers have deduced that the monkey was exceptionally small, in the size range of marmosets and tamarins, and likely ate a mix of insects and fruits.Given how the monkey fossil record for the period between 13 million and 31 million years ago from South America is extremely scarce, creating a gap in the understanding of the evolution of New World monkeys, the discovery of P. materdei is incredibly exciting, researchers say. In 2016, researchers digging along the Río Alto Madre de Dios in the Peruvian Amazon uncovered hundreds of fossils of rodents, bats and other animals. Among the fossils was an extremely small tooth, “double the size of the head of a pin,” said Richard Kay, a professor of evolutionary anthropology at Duke University. This upper molar, Kay and his colleagues write in a new study, belonged to a species of tiny monkey no heavier than a hamster that lived in the region some 18 million years ago.When the researchers first saw the tooth among the fossil collection, they immediately knew they were looking at something special.“Monkey teeth are very diagnostic,” Kay, the lead author of the study, told Mongabay. “The team was very excited because these specimens are extremely rare.”Kay and his colleagues have named the new species of extinct monkey Parvimico materdei, with parvimico meaning tiny monkey and the species name referring to the Río Alto Madre de Dios, on the banks of which the team discovered the fossil. The fossil tooth has now been stored in the collections of the Institute of Paleontology at Peru’s National University of Piura.A 3D scan of the fossilized tooth found in Peru’s Amazon jungle. Image by Duke SMIF.A single, small tooth can’t reveal a whole lot. But to paleontologists, the size and shape of the tooth, how worn it is, and where it was found, can say a few things about what the animal may have been like.“The tooth’s crown is very well preserved and from the wear in life we can infer that it was a young individual,” Kay said in an email.The researchers have also concluded that P. materdei “was an exceptionally small monkey, in the size range of marmosets and tamarins.” The monkey also likely ate a mix of insects and fruits, the researchers say, based on the tooth’s structure.“Very small living Amazon monkeys (especially the marmosets) feed mostly on a mix of fruit and tree exudates (gum),” Kay said. “Parvimico lacks the gum component in its diet.“We can say nothing more reliably about its social habits or mode of locomotion, although tree living is probable because all known South American monkeys are arboreal,” he added.A tiny tooth may not seem like much. But fossil records of primates from South America are rare, which means that even a fossil tooth is a big deal. In fact, P. materdei is the first named Early Miocene primate from the Amazon Basin, the researchers write in the paper.The rarity of primate fossils in South America is “because the overall biomass of South American monkeys is very low compared with that of small rodents (of which we have many specimens) and marsupials,” Kay said. “Also, monkeys have long life spans and slow reproductive rates compared with rodents of similar size, so the rate of turnover is slower.”Given how scarce primate fossils from the region are, P. materdei fills a gap in understanding the evolution of New World monkeys.Researchers posit that monkeys reached South America from Africa some 40 million years ago. In South America, they diversified into the more than 150 species of New World monkeys known today, most of them living in the Amazon rainforest. However, the monkey fossil record for the period between 13 million and 31 million years ago from the region is extremely scant, and includes just a few fragments of teeth and jaws.P. materdei dates back 17 million to 19 million years, placing it “smack dab in the time and place when we would have expected diversification to have occurred in the New World monkeys,” Kay said in a statement.In fact, sediments on the banks of the Río Alto Madre de Dios are rich in fossils and are helping Kay’s team reconstruct what life was like in the Amazon 18 million years ago. The location is especially important to retrace the evolution of primates.“The proximity to the Andes is the key,” Kay said. “As the Andes rose through the Cenozoic, the adjacent originally flat-lying sediments in the piedmont region were folded, then eroded flat. Rivers crosscut the ancient sediments bringing the rock units to the surface. By contrast in the central Amazon basin, the older sediments are still deeply buried. The few other geologically old primate specimens recovered, of which there are only 4 or 5 teeth, share the same proximity to the Andes.”Sediments along the Río Alto Madre de Dios in southern Peru are rich in fossils. Image by Wout Salenbien/Duke University.Citation:Kay, R. F., Gonzales, L. A., Salenbien, W., Martinez, J. N., Cooke, S. B., Valdivia, L. A., … & Baker, P. A. (2019). Parvimico materdei gen. et sp. nov.: A new platyrrhine from the Early Miocene of the Amazon Basin, Peru. Journal of Human Evolution, 134, 102628. doi: 10.1016/j.jhevol.2019.05.016last_img read more